The first hostilities of the Civil War began on the twelfth of April, 1861, with an attack on Fort Sumter. The war was waged between the southern and northern United States; the southern half of the nation, also known as the Confederate States of America, wished to succeed, or to become an independent country. Fighting for their rights of power to the state rather than the federal government, the practice of economic slavery, and their constitutional right to succeed, the Confederacy began the war with some of the nation’s greatest military leaders. Intending to unite the two countries, and to end the practice of slavery, the Union commenced the war with far greater figures in supplies and personnel.
The American Civil War officially ended on the ninth of April, 1865, with the surrender of Confederate General Robert Edward Lee. At the war’s conclusion, six hundred, twenty thousand casualties were accounted for.
During the American Civil War, the Endless Mountains area saw over two hundred men and women volunteer in the Union Army. Most of these men and women joined the Seventeenth Pennsylvania Regiment early in the war, from June to September of 1861. Very few soldiers returned to the Endless Mountains Area; the Seventeenth Pennsylvania Regiment was one of the first infantry units to break ranks at the battle of Gettysburg. It had been reported that less than 25 of the original 230 volunteers returned to the Endless Mountains area after the war’s conclusion in April of 1865.